[100] O'Shaughnessy discovered cannabis in the 1830s while living abroad in India, where he conducted numerous experiments investigating the drug's medical utility (noting in particular its analgesic and anticonvulsant effects). [75][77][78], Delta-9-THC is the primary molecule responsible for the effects of cannabis. In the US, pet manufacturers use hemp in dog and cat bedding. [72], Due to the poor bioavailability of oral preparations, alternative routes of administration have been studied, including sublingual and rectal. Evidence for causing these cancers is mixed concerning heavy, long-term use. BLACK ROOTS Science. 1995", "Who invented the toothbrush and when was it? The American Heart Association says that "many of the concerning health implications of cannabis include cardiovascular diseases" but that it supports rescheduling to allow "more nuanced ... marijuana legislation and regulation" and to "reflect the existing science behind cannabis". In the US, most consumers grow their own or buy it from cannabis dispensaries in states where it is legal. Their efforts led to the legalization of industrial hemp (hemp with only minute amounts of tetrahydrocannabinol) in Canada and the first harvest in 1998. ", "Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis", "Systematic review: efficacy and safety of medical marijuana in selected neurologic disorders: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology", "Benefits and harms of medical cannabis: a scoping review of systematic reviews", "Sex(ism), Drugs, and Migraines: Distillations Podcast and Transcript, Episode 237", "The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids", "Adverse effects of medical cannabinoids: a systematic review", "Guidelines for antiemetic treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: past, present, and future recommendations", "Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in childhood", "Efficacy of Cannabis-Based Medicines for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials", "Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials", "Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda", "Cannabinoids for the treatment of mental disorders and symptoms of mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis", "Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence", 1983/b8fb2d3b-5a55-4d07-97c0-1650b0ffc05d, "Sativex Oral Mucosal Spray Public Assessment Report. Smaller production occurs in the rest of Europe, Chile, and North Korea. [12], Cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages include Dutch hennep, Danish and Norwegian hamp, Saterland Frisian Hoamp, German Hanf, Icelandic hampur and Swedish hampa. [168], The cultivation of hemp in Portuguese lands began around the fourteenth century. [84] Similar to delta-9-THC, a majority of CBD is excreted in feces and some in the urine. Around one tonne of bast fiber and 2–3 tonnes of core material can be decorticated from 3–4 tonnes of good-quality, dry-retted straw. [143] In 2014, the startup Meadow began offering on-demand delivery of medical marijuana in the San Francisco Bay Area, through their mobile app. For reasons including increased popular support of cannabis use, a trend of cannabis legalization, and the perception of medical usefulness, more scientists are doing medical cannabis research. Because marijuana use in Japan has doubled in the past decade, these exemptions have recently been called into question. This was traditionally followed by retting, either water retting (the bundled hemp floats in water) or dew retting (the hemp remains on the ground and is affected by the moisture in dew and by molds and bacterial action). United States "Marihuana" production permit. The paper then discusses the potential of hemp as an alternative crop. [26][27] Pure hemp has a texture similar to linen. [120] The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. [91], The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) from Ancient Egypt describes medical cannabis. The Ebers Papyrus (c. 1550 BCE) from Ancient Egypt has a prescription for medical marijuana applied directly for inflammation. [153] However, the AAP also supports rescheduling for the purpose of facilitating research.[10]. [4] It is also approved in several European countries for overactive bladder and vomiting. I did this every day for one week. The most problematic for outdoor crops are the voracious stem-boring caterpillars, which include the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the Eurasian hemp borer, Grapholita delineana. Synthetic cannabinoids are available for prescription use in some countries, such as dronabinol and nabilone. Log In. [33] Designed by Modece Architects,[34] who pioneered hemp's use in UK construction, the hemp houses were monitored in comparison with other standard dwellings by BRE. Create New Account. For the genus of plants, see, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Research in these events is complicated because cannabis is often used in conjunction with tobacco, and drugs such as alcohol and cocaine. These alternative formulations maximize bioavailability and reduce first-pass metabolism. [163], Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a recognized top Kentucky hemp farmer with harvested hemp, 1942. In the United States, hemp cultivation is legally prohibited, but during World War II farmers were encouraged to grow hemp for cordage, to replace Manila hemp previously obtained from Japanese-controlled areas. [162], Hemp for Victory, a short documentary produced by the United States Department of Agriculture during World War II, 1942 United States Department of Agriculture War Board Letter of appreciation to Joe "Daddy Burt" Burton, a Kentucky hemp farmer for his support of the World War II Hemp for Victory campaign. [35] The first US home made of hemp-based materials was completed in August 2010 in Asheville, North Carolina. The 36-month work program aims to refine product and manufacturing protocols and produce data for certification and marketing, warranty, insurance cover, and availability of finance. [37], Hemp is used as an internal plaster and is a mixture of hemp hurd (shive) mixed with larger proportions of a lime-based binder. [59] A second systematic review focused on neuroimaging studies found little evidence supporting an effect of cannabis use on brain structure and function. [4] The bast fibers can be used to make textiles that are 100% hemp, but they are commonly blended with other fibers, such as flax, cotton or silk, as well as virgin and recycled polyester, to make woven fabrics for apparel and furnishings. France ranks second with about a quarter of the world production. For the plant, see. Due to substantial metabolism of THC and CBD, their metabolites are excreted mostly via feces, rather than by urine. [170], In 1971, the cultivation of hemp became illegal, and the production was substantially reduced. indica generally has poor fiber quality and female buds from this variety are primarily used for recreational and medicinal purposes. Posttraumatic stress disorder § Cannabinoids, United States Department of Health and Human Services, countries that have decriminalized or where enforcement is limited, Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, Medical marijuana dispensary in Denver, Colorado, "The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis", "Cannabinoids for Medical Use: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis", "AAFP Releases Marijuana, Cannabinoids Position Paper", "Up in Smoke: Does Medical Marijuana Work? [39][40], According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, there were 455,000 emergency room visits associated with cannabis use in 2011. In a survey of heavy users 42.4% experienced withdrawal symptoms when they tried to quit marijuana such as craving, irritability, boredom, anxiety and sleep disturbances. Air-dried stem yields in Ontario have from 1998 and onward ranged from 2.6–14.0 tonnes of dry, retted stalks per hectare (1–5.5 t/ac) at 12% moisture. One has to just add 4 to 5 drops of it to lukewarm water and drink after breakfast and once after dinner. However, it is not legal in all states, and there may also be some risks. [15] Evidence also suggests that oral cannabis extract is effective for reducing patient-centered measures of spasticity. [97]:19–22 Harvesting the plant led to the spread of cannabis throughout Eurasia about 10,000 to 5,000 years ago, with further distribution to the Middle East and Africa about 2,000 to 500 years ago. [71], In contrast to cannabis for medical use, varieties grown for fiber and seed have less than 0.3% THC and are unsuitable for producing hashish and marijuana. [129] Similar attempts were made in Peru, Colombia, and Mexico, but only in Chile did the crop find success. Industrial hempseed harvesting machine in France. [69] When sold under the trade name Sativex as a mouth spray, the prescribed daily dose in Sweden delivers a maximum of 32.4 mg of THC and 30 mg of CBD; mild to moderate dizziness is common during the first few weeks. The Alkaline Lifestyle Plan. [18], In 2011, the US imported $11.5 million worth of hemp products, mostly driven by growth in the demand for hemp seed and hemp oil for use as ingredients in foods such as granola. [70] In these strains of industrial hemp* the tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content would have been very low. [117], As of 2017 the hemp industry estimated that annual sales of hemp products were around $820 million annually; hemp-derived CBD have been the major force driving this growth. Hemp was also commonly used to make sail canvas. sativa is the variety grown for industrial use, while C. sativa subsp. [99], An Irish physician, William Brooke O'Shaughnessy, is credited with introducing cannabis to Western medicine. The hemp twine varies in thickness and comes in a variety of colors. [45], There has been a limited amount of studies that have looked at the effects of smoking cannabis on the respiratory system. [10][11] Then it appears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic, Finnish, and Germanic languages. The Committee worked with the provincial government to get research and development assistance and was able to obtain test plot permits from the Canadian government. Its use for MS is approved in ten countries. It was also one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago. Harvard Health Publishing’s report, Medical Marijuana: Facts about cannabis, THC, and CBD, will give you the evidence-based answers to when and why you might want to consider medical cannabis. [42][43], Effects of chronic use may include bronchitis, a cannabis dependence syndrome, and subtle impairments of attention and memory. 341–56. [21] Comparative studies have found cannabinoids to be more effective than some conventional antiemetics such as prochlorperazine, promethazine, and metoclopramide in controlling CINV,[22] but these are used less frequently because of side effects including dizziness, dysphoria, and hallucinations. The U.S. government produced a film explaining the uses of hemp, called Hemp for Victory. ", "Cannabis Addiction and the Brain: a Review", "Effects of marijuana smoking on the lung", "Effects of marijuana on the lung and its immune defenses", "Cannabis arteritis: review of the literature", "Medical consequences of marijuana use: a review of current literature", "Get Medical Marijuana Card Online in 10 Mins - Medical Marijuana Doctor", "An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions", "Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature", "Non-acute (residual) neurocognitive effects of cannabis use: a meta-analytic study", "Cannabis use and earlier onset of psychosis: a systematic meta-analysis", "Causal association between cannabis and psychosis: examination of the evidence", "Heavy marijuana users show increased serum apolipoprotein C-III levels: evidence from proteomic analyses", "Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective", "A review of oral cannabinoids and medical marijuana for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a focus on pharmacokinetic variability and pharmacodynamics", "Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting", "11-Hydroxy-THC - Increased Potency That Explains the Effect of Edibles? [89], In the Australian states of Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, New South Wales, and most recently, South Australia, the state governments have issued licences to grow hemp for industrial use. These deficits persist while chronically intoxicated. [69] Ideally, according to Britain's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, the herb should be desiccated and harvested towards the end of flowering. [11] Although cannabis remains prohibited for any use at the federal level, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was enacted in December 2014, limiting the ability of federal law to be enforced in states where medical cannabis has been legalized. The inner two fibers of the plant are woodier and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding, and litter. The National Institute on Drug Abuse defines medical cannabis as "using the whole, unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to treat symptoms of illness and other conditions". They developed, and in 1987 gained permission to market, the pharmaceutical "Canasol", one of the first cannabis extracts.[166]. Ancient Herbs … Jefferson's Memorandum Books: Accounts, with Legal Records and Miscellany, 1767–1826. Toronto: Champlain Society. Approximately 65% of THC is excreted in feces and 25% in the urine, while the remaining 10% is excreted by other means. [5] When usual treatments are ineffective, cannabinoids have also been recommended for anorexia, arthritis, glaucoma,[17] and migraine. [8][9] Others oppose its legalization, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics.[10]. About 15% was used in the automotive sector, and 5-6% was used for insulation mats. [27], Research into the use of cannabis for treating chronic pain has yielded inconsistent results for neuropathic pain, spasms associated with multiple sclerosis and pain from rheumatic disorders. It can be used to make a wide range of products. He recommended the substance for many ailments, including constipation, gout, rheumatism, and absent-mindedness. The Herbal Grown CBD Oil customer service team is dedicated to providing support to its customers. Hemp paper does not require the use of toxic bleaching or as many chemicals as wood pulp because it can be whitened with hydrogen peroxide. Kuda CBD. [72][74] Oilseed and fiber varieties of Cannabis approved for industrial hemp production produce only minute amounts of this psychoactive drug, not enough for any physical or psychological effects. Along with bamboo, hemp is one of the fastest growing plants on Earth. In December 2014, however, the Rohrabacher–Farr amendment was signed into law, prohibiting the Justice Department from prosecuting individuals acting in accordance with state medical cannabis laws. [22] Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), which attempt to measure the degree to which a food for humans is a "complete protein", were 0.49–0.53 for whole hemp seed, 0.46–0.51 for hemp seed meal, and 0.63–0.66 for hulled hemp seed. 1 × $ 15.00 × Maui Wowie Disposable Vape Pen (Straight Goods) - 1 × $ 42.00 × Grand Daddy Purple THC Distillate Ceramic Cartridge (Pyro Extracts) - 1 × $ 35.00 Subtotal: $ 92.00 View cart Checkout [80], Next, 11-OH-THC is metabolized in the liver into 11-COOH-THC, which is the second metabolic product of THC. As mechanical technology evolved, separating the fiber from the core was accomplished by crushing rollers and brush rollers, or by hammer-milling, wherein a mechanical hammer mechanism beats the hemp against a screen until hurd, smaller bast fibers, and dust fall through the screen. Companies in Canada, the UK, the United States, and Germany, among many others, process hemp seed into a growing range of food products and cosmetics; many traditional growing countries continue to produce textile-grade fibre. There is archaeological evidence cannabis was used for clothing and the seeds were eaten in Japan back to the Jōmon period (10,000 to 300 BC). [56], A 2013 literature review found that exposure to marijuana had biologically-based physical, mental, behavioral and social health consequences and was "associated with diseases of the liver (particularly with co-existing hepatitis C), lungs, heart, and vasculature". [87][102], From the 1950s to the 1980s, the Soviet Union was the world's largest producer of hemp (3,000 square kilometres (1,200 sq mi) in 1970). [106] In 2001, Canada became the first country to adopt a system regulating the medical use of cannabis.[107]. [citation needed], Hemp is usually planted between March and May in the northern hemisphere, between September and November in the southern hemisphere. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow "both English and Indian" hemp on their plantations. [54] Tarring was a labor-intensive process, and earned sailors the nickname "Jack Tar". [4] The potential for adverse effects from smoke inhalation makes smoking a less viable option than oral preparations. This article is about the therapeutic preparation. [51] Cannabis is believed to be an aggravating factor in rare cases of arteritis, a serious condition that in some cases leads to amputation. National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits", "Adverse health effects of marijuana use", "What has research over the past two decades revealed about the adverse health effects of recreational cannabis use? During World War II, the U.S. produced a short 1942 film, Hemp for Victory, promoting hemp as a necessary crop to win the war. [16] Low quality evidence suggests its use for reducing nausea during chemotherapy, improving appetite in HIV/AIDS, improving sleep, and improving tics in Tourette syndrome. ... Cannabis is one of the 50 "fundamental" herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. In general there are far lower risks of pulmonary complications for regular cannabis smokers when compared with those of tobacco. And, in fact, the hemp plant, Cannabis Sativa, has been cultivated by humans for thousands of years. Separation of hurd and bast fiber is known as decortication. Medical cannabis research includes any medical research on using cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition. [82], CBD is hydroxylated by P450 liver enzymes into 7-OH-CBD. This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 23:25. [57], CB1 and CB2 are the primary cannabinoid receptors responsible for several of the effects of cannabinoids, although other receptors may play a role as well. 450-1100)-language text, Articles containing Akkadian-language text, Articles with text in North Germanic languages, Articles containing Saterland Frisian-language text, Articles containing Icelandic-language text, Articles containing Swedish-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2000, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2016, Articles needing additional references from April 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with disputed statements from March 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2016, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2019, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. [19], In the UK, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs treats hemp as a purely non-food crop, but with proper licensing and proof of less than 0.2% THC concentration, hemp seeds can be imported for sowing or for sale as a food or food ingredient. Compared to its wood pulp counterpart, paper from hemp fibers resists decomposition and does not yellow or brown with age. [13] The number of active chemicals in cannabis is one reason why treatment with cannabis is difficult to classify and study. [10] Barber (1991) however, argued that the spread of the name "kannabis" was due to its historically more recent plant use, starting from the south, around Iran, whereas non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric. Yields in Kent County, have averaged 8.75 t/ha (3.5 t/ac). Dr Farid F. Youssef. [104][105], After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the commercial cultivation of hemp declined sharply. Most of the illicit drug emergency room visits involved multiple drugs. [128] Hemp in later Europe was mainly cultivated for its fibers and was used for ropes on many ships, including those of Christopher Columbus. [76] As the names imply, they target the stems reducing the structural integrity of the plant. [10], Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products, including rope, textiles, clothing, shoes, food, paper, bioplastics, insulation, and biofuel. [44] A follow-up review found that IQ deficit may be a precursor, rather than result, of cannabis use, and that social and environmental factors are a likely influence. "Dà má" (Pinyin pronunciation) is the Chinese expression for cannabis, the first character meaning "big" and the second character meaning "hemp". He ordered the creation of the Royal Linen and Hemp Factory in the town of Torre de Moncorvo to increase production and support the effort. Native to Europe and Asia expensive compared to just add 4 to 5 drops of it to lukewarm and! 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Psychoactive cannabinoid found in very high levels in the US, most consumers grow own. ) paintings at its peakiest stages in Chile did the crop find success 32 ] in 1850 was... ] common side effects include dizziness, feeling tired, vomiting, and Lucia Stanton... Absorption from the oils in hemp seeds have been few reports of symptoms lasting longer was quite for... 35 ] the ancient world sowing of seeds each day until mid-April, commonly as... Approving licenses for industrial use then describes how hemp was Historically used as animal bedding (,... Increased use of cannabis adult is 30 grams, approximately 6 % eventually, both routes metabolism. At high doses hemp that is grown specifically for industrial hemp is possibly of... Synthetic cannabinoid, is a major constituent among some 560 compounds found very...: human studies '', `` cannabis and psychosis/schizophrenia: human studies '', `` abuse!