Electron travels back to PS I 5. Two distinct pathways of cyclic flow exist, the PGR5 and the NDH pathways. Photosynthesis Non Cyclic Electron Flow. Some light energy is used to break water molecule (H2O) by photolysis and produces … The system is predominant in bacteria Non-Cyclic photophosphorylation The photophosphorylation occurring a non-cyclic electron transport is called non cyclic photophosphorylation. Cyclic electron transport is a light‐driven flow of electrons through a photosynthetic reaction centre with the electrons returning to the reaction centre via an electron transport pathway. It begins with PII and follows these steps: 1. In cyclic electron transport, electrons from ferredoxin are transferred (via plastoquinone) to a proton pump, cytochrome b 6 f. They are then returned (via plastocyanin) to P700. 3. (C) Changes in ETR(II) in the treatments. 2: Involves only Photosystem I (PS I) Involves both Photosystem I and II (PS I and PS II) 3: The electron circle is closed electron move down the chain, their exergonic “fall”to a lower energy CHEMIOSMOSIS 3. Oxygen is not evolved 8. Cyclic vs. Non-cyclic Electron Flow . No NADPH is produced. Learn. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I has a role in avoiding photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII), which occurs under conditions in which the rate of photodamage to PSII exceeds the rate of its repair. iron-containing protein. Photosystem II. left O combines with another, creating O2. 6. Electron movement is non-cyclic in noncyclic photophosphorylation. An ATP is Indeed in these conditions, acidification of thylakoid lumen – inducing NPQ and triggering ATP synthesis – has been considered to require alternative mechanisms in addition to linear electron flow, such as cyclic electron transport or oxygen photoreduction (Heber & Walker 1992; Bendall & Manasse 1995). When Photosystem (PS) II is inhibited, a cyclic electron flow around PSI operates transiently at a rate close to the maximum turnover of photosynthesis. Cyclic electron flow: The relative magnitude of cyclic electron flow around PSI was assessed through the post-illumination transient increase in fluorescence yield after turning off actinic light (Mano et al. 1995, Munné-Bosch et al. 13-12). -+ PS I X MV OZ. Flashcards. (B) Changes in CEF in the treatments. Two distinct pathways of cyclic flow exist, the PGR5 and the NDH pathways. Its energy is absorbed by the light-harvesting Chl molecules in both PSI and PSII, and is then used for the excitation of both the reaction center Chls. The system is predominant in bacteria Non-Cyclic photophosphorylation The photophosphorylation occurring a non-cyclic electron transport is called non cyclic photophosphorylation. Test. This is called cyclic photophosphorylation. This cyclical process is rather than those reducing electrons being originally sourced from photosystem II. CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW 4. The cyclic electron flow continues until the demand of ATP fulfilled. Wah Chow. No O2 is generated. Suppose the level of NADP is low and the level of NADPH is high. Photolysis or water splitting is absent 7. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Cyclic electron flow avoids both photosystem II and the donation of electrons to NADP +. Also can be described as a cyclic photophosphorylation. It is further shown that roll waves are purely convective instabilities, whereas cyclic steps can be absolute. Spell. There are three types of photosynthetic bacteria (green, purple sulphur, purple non-sulphur). Then they enter the electron transport chain. Terms in this set (8) Step 1. Gravity. chemiosmosis). The rate of phosphorylation is higher in the non-endo- genous cycle due to fast reoxidation of methyl- viologen by OZ. Phosphorylation. Photosynthesis - Photosynthesis - The pathway of electrons: The general features of a widely accepted mechanism for photoelectron transfer, in which two light reactions (light reaction I and light reaction II) occur during the transfer of electrons from water to carbon dioxide, were proposed by Robert Hill and Fay Bendall in 1960. Under certain conditions, the photoexcited electrons take an alternative path called cyclic electron flow, which uses photosystem I (P700) but not photosystem II (P680). Regulation of cyclic flow probably occurs though competition for oxidising ferredoxin. In cyclic photophosphorylation, the high energy electron is free from P700 to ps1 flow down to a cyclic pathway. Both pathways include a phosphorylating step. We have investigated the occurrence of cyclic electron flow in intact spinach leaves. Electrons instead are passed from photosystem I to an electron transport chain, resulting in proton pumping, and then returned to reduce photosystem I, returning that photosystem to its ground state. Da … The overall electron transport flow can be mentioned as follow: 1. Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in [CEF-PSI][1] mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high-light ([HL][2]) conditions. Question: The Following 9 Steps In The Linear (or Noncyclic) Electron Flow Of The Light Reactions In Photosynthesis Are In Alphabetical Order. We examined the effect of impairment of CEF and thermal … For that purpose, dark-adapted (1 h) leaves were inserted into the leaf clip of a MINI-PAM fluorimeter They are then returned (via plastocyanin) to P700. photoexcited electron (energized by light) passes from the primary ATP SYNTHESIS 2. 5. CHEMIOSMOSIS 3. Figure 2. Figure 2. … Thank you for listening 32. produced through chemiosmosis in both cyclic and non-cyclic but not photosystem II (P680). This type of photophosphorylation usually occurs in the thylakoid membrane. Following steps take place during cyclic phosphorylation: I. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how CEF contributes to photoprotection i … Higher export of reducing power from the chloroplast in [CEF-PSI][1] mutants has been correlated with higher mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) capacity and protein amount under high-light ([HL][2]) conditions. Cyclic electron transport is a light‐driven flow of electrons through a photosynthetic reaction centre with the electrons returning to the reaction centre via an electron transport pathway. Electrons travels in a cyclic manner 4. 3. 4. The reason for this diversion is simply that more ATP is required to complete photosynthesis than is generated relative to NADPH production by noncyclic electron flow alone. During photosynthesis of plants, sunlight causes many kinds of electron transport. In cyclic photophosphorylation, the high energy electron is free from P700 to ps1 flow down to a cyclic pathway. Photolysis or water splitting is absent 7. Often the amount Cyclic electron transport will normally generate an electrochemical potential (typically pH) gradient across a membrane but does not result in the net production of reductant. 7. The process is described as cyclical because rather than electrons flowing from one component of the light reaction to another (photosystem II to NADP+), they instead cycle back to the same component (photosystem I to photosystem I). 2. Indicate The Correct Chronological Order. Oxygen is not evolved 8. Splitting of H20. Effects of air exposure treatments on ETR and cyclic electron flow. Noncyclic photophosphorylation is the process of making ATP and Pi (phosphorylation) using energy derived from light. The photoexcitation of the PSII reaction center leads to the charge separation of the reaction center Chl P680, with both production of P680+ and donation of the re… PSI. Cyclic flow makes ATP and protects plants from stress by triggering non photochemical quenching. The turnover of linear and cyclic electron flows has been determined in fragments of dark-adapted spinach leaf by measuring the kinetics of fluorescence yield and of the transmembrane electrical potential changes under saturating illumination. Here, we report experiments demonstrating the importance of that ΔpH in protecting plants from stress and … electron acceptor. The light dependent reaction converts ADP and NADP+ into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH and produces oxygen. This video is the second of two parts. Cyclic. STUDY. In dark-adapted leaves, the efficiency of cyclic relative to linear flow induced by far-red light is increased, implying that the limiting step of cyclic flow lies in the re-injection of electrons into the electron transport chain. We have investigated the occurrence of cyclic electron flow in intact spinach leaves. The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I ([CEF-PSI][1]) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast, acting as an energy balance mechanism. In this example, the P840 reaction center absorbs light energy and becomes energized, the emitted electron reduces an FeS protein and in turn reduces ferredoxin. The excited electron is ejected and used to reduce an FeS protein leaving an oxidized reaction center. Start studying Cyclic Electron Pathway Steps. Because reduced ferredoxin donates its electron to NADP, the electrons could possibly “back up” in the two photosystems. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I has a role in avoiding photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII), which occurs under conditions in which the rate of photodamage to PSII exceeds the rate of its repair. f, plastocyanin?) Without sufficient (A) Post-illumination increases of chlorophyll fluorescence in the treatments. LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION 5. GROUP 9 MILTEOFE S. DAYANDAYAN CHEDIROSE SALAZAR MICHAEL ANDREW YGNACIO FERNANDO … Non-cyclic Electron Transport in Photosynthesis Photophosphorylation refers to the use of light energy to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP, thus replenishing the universal energy currency in living things.In the simplest systems in prokaryotes, photosynthesis is used just for the production of energy, and not for the building of any biological molecules. Chemiosmosis in Photosynthesis or chloroplast simple steps ... Electron flow and Energy release: High energy electrons are released from the reaction centre chl-a molecule that is transferred through series of electron carriers in cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation. Sidestep six. The chloroplast will continue cyclic photophosphorylation until the ATP Through this process, a proton motive force is created that is used to produce ATP. Non – Cyclic Electron Transport ... NADPH will accumulate and the plant may shift from noncyclic to cyclic electron flow. 3. Reduced ferredoxin (Fd red) can now reduce NADP to form NADPH. photosystem II absorbs light, an electron excited to a higher energy level A means during photosynthesis of biasing light reaction outputs towards increasing photophosphorylation over NADPH production. Abstract. Da-yong Fan. STEP 1 - What photosystems are required in non-cyclic photophosphorylation? NADPH FORMATION 6.… PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 2009. Electrons from water molecule enter into the chlorophyll to replace the lost electron. an electron “hole” in the chlorophyll a molecule in the reaction center of Blog. Prezi’s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice for the new year The turnover of linear and cyclic electron flows has been determined in fragments of dark-adapted spinach leaf by measuring the kinetics of fluorescence yield and of the transmembrane electrical potential changes under saturating illumination. Solution for Give the meaning of the words 1. The electron begins in a pigment complex called photosystem I in cyclic electron flow. Each Write. E) The reaction centers, electron carriers, and ATP-forming enzymes are located in the thylakoid membrane. (E) The P700 signal in the treatments. Alternatively, electrons may be transferred only by light reaction I, in which case they are recycled from ferredoxin back to the intermediate carriers. The pathway of energy flow is different from that of electron transport flow. Both pathways include a phosphorylating step. Clearly the electron flow was from the electron donor and back to the same compound (Fig. Cyclic Electron Transport in Photosynthesis Photophosphorylation refers to the use of light energy to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP, thus replenishing the universal energy currency in living things.In the simplest systems in prokaryotes, photosynthesis is used just for the production of energy, and not for the building of any biological molecules. Noncyclic electron flow: involves both photosystems I & II and produces ATP and NADPH Cyclic electron flow uses only PSI and produces only ATP No H2O splitting occurs. Here, we report experiments demonstrating the importance of that ΔpH in protecting plants from stress and relating to … Murray Badger. other_links("T","Cyclic Electron Flow","Cyclic_electron_flow","cyclic+electron+flow","F","F","F","F"); Cyclic electron flow avoids both photosystem II and the donation of electrons to NADP+. in the reaction center chlorophyll (P680) is captured by the primary The excited electron is ejected and used to reduce an FeS protein leaving an oxidized reaction center. The electron its transferred to a quinone, then to a series of cytochromes, which in turn reduces the P840 reaction center. Goes to P1 through ETC (plastoquinone (pq), cytochrome complex, and plastocyanin (pc) Step five. primary electron acceptor of photosystem I passes the excited electrons to We isolated a new class of mutant in Arabidopsis thaliana , hcef for high CEF1, which shows constitutively elevated CEF1. Cyclic Photophosphorylation is the process in which organisms (like prokaryotes), just accomplish the conversion of ADP to ATP for immediate energy for the cells. the electrons that the chlorophyll molecule lost when it absorbed light alternative path called cyclic electron flow, which uses photosystem I (P700) E- that left the chlorophyll is replaced by h2o being split. Electrons travels in a cyclic manner 4. 2005). Cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I has been shown to play an essential role in photosynthesis. Created by. Cyclic flow makes ATP and protects plants from stress by triggering non photochemical quenching. The electron at a low energy level returns to chlorophyll ultimately. Clearly the electron flow was from the electron donor and back to the same compound (Fig. Under certain conditions, the photoexcited electrons take an 2. a) Chlorophyll molecules absorb UV radiation exciting… enzyme extracts electrons from water and supplies them to P680, replacing D) NADPH, but not ATP or O 2. The light energy of the sun is converted to electron flows in the photosynthetic electron transport system in chloroplasts. (A) Post-illumination increases of chlorophyll fluorescence in the treatments. The reaction center P840 absorbs light energy and becomes excited, denoted with an *. This process produces no NADPH and no O 2, but it does make ATP. photophosphorylation. photophosphorylation. Dec. 30, 2020. Cyclic electron flow (CEFI) has been proposed to balance the chloroplast energy budget, but the pathway, mechanism, and physiological role remain unclear. PLAY. The former two types are autotrophic and use H 2 S as electron donor for CO 2 reduction. The purpose of photosynthesis is to harness light energy and use it to move electrons through an electron transport chain. When Solution for Which of the following correctly sequences the steps of non-cyclic electron transport? 2005), which implies that either a transhydrogenase or several metabolic steps are needed for this complex to drive a cyclic electron transfer around PSI. Following steps take place during cyclic phosphorylation: P 700 of the photosystem I absorb light. Also can be described as a cyclic photophosphorylation. Non-cyclic Electron Flow. So the cyclic flow is a short circuit. Cyclic Electron Transport in Photosynthesis Photophosphorylation refers to the use of light energy to ultimately provide the energy to convert ADP to ATP, thus replenishing the universal energy currency in living things.In the simplest systems in prokaryotes, photosynthesis is used just for the production of energy, and not for the building of any biological molecules. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how CEF contributes to photoprotection is not yet well understood. Non-cyclic Electron Flow. ATP, the Calvin cycle will slow or even stop. Wah Chow. Cyclic electron flow. The electron at a low energy level returns to chlorophyll ultimately. Cyclic electron flow (CEF) around photosystem I has a role in avoiding photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII), which occurs under conditions in which the rate of photodamage to PSII exceeds the rate of its repair. (E) The P700 signal in the treatments. The cyclic electron flow around photosystem I ([CEF-PSI][1]) increases ATP/NADPH production in the chloroplast, acting as an energy balance mechanism. LIGHT DEPENDENT REACTION 5. Cyclic electron flow is increasingly recognized as being essential in plant growth, generating a pH gradient across thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) that contributes to ATP synthesis and triggers the protective process of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) under stress conditions. Light is absorbed by Photosystem II, the excited electrons enter into an electron transport chain to produce ATP STEP 2 - What happens in photosystem II, where does this thing go into what, to produce what? On the other hand, the complicated spatiotemporal patterns associated with the cyclic-step instability should develop naturally. In spite of this, cyclic electron flow is able to compete efficiently with PSI across a range of conditions. These accessions were identified to have different natural capacities in driving cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI; i.e., low CEF (lcef) and high CEF (hcef) for C4023 and Q4149, respectively. 7. (C) Changes in ETR(II) in the treatments. CYCLIC ELECTRON FLOW 4. Therefore, the cyclic flow is a short circuit. This The rate of phosphorylation is higher in the non-endo- genous cycle due to fast reoxidation of methyl- viologen by OZ. Match. The Non-cyclic electron flow. Thus, in the finite geometries of the laboratory or field, it may be difficult to excite roll waves. f, plastocyanin?) (Please Note, Do Not Rely On The Step Numbers Providied In Your Textbook. The former two types are autotrophic and use H 2 S as electron donor for CO 2 reduction. (D) Changes in ETR(I) in the treatments. energy. electron acceptor in photosystem II to photosystem. 3. NADPH FORMATION 6.… In other words, all the electron carriers would be fully reduced and no photosynthesis could take place. the cyclic electron flow has been “opened” and changed into an open chain as follows: NADPH -+ Fp + (cyt. There are three types of photosynthetic bacteria (green, purple sulphur, purple non-sulphur). This type of photophosphorylation usually occurs in the thylakoid membrane. Research Highlights Cyclic electron flow around Photosystem I has been shown to play an essential role in photosynthesis. B) ATP, but not NADPH or O 2. level is harnessed by the thylakoid membrane to produce ATP (by 13-12). The chloroplast shifts to this process when the ATP supply drops and the photosystem I (P700). In this example, the P840 reaction center absorbs light energy and becomes energized, the emitted electron reduces an FeS protein and in turn reduces ferredoxin. As In particular, we have tested the hypothesis that cyclic flow requires the presence of supercomplexes in the thylakoid membrane or other strong associations between proteins. The effect of cyclic electron flow is simply the diversion of more captured photons to ATP production than otherwise would be the case with noncyclic electron flow alone. This is called cyclic photophosphorylation. An electron flow in addition to the major electron sinks in C 3 plants [both photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) and photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycles] is termed an alternative electron flow (AEF) and functions in the chloroplasts of leaves. This light energy drives electrons from P7 of the photosystem I to the primary electron acceptor. Question: The Following 9 Steps In The Linear (or Noncyclic) Electron Flow Of The Light Reactions In Photosynthesis Are In Alphabetical Order. Natalie Hinds, Miranda Chan, and Kellie Kou. The electron begins in a pigment complex called photosystem I in cyclic electron flow. In particular, NADH has been reported as a preferential substrate of the NDH complex (Sazanov, Burrows & Nixon 1998b; Rumeau et al. -+ PS I X MV OZ. ETC. How Does Cyclic Electron Flow Alleviate Photoinhibition in Arabidopsis? Only ATP is produced 6. In particular, we have tested the hypothesis that cyclic flow requires the presence of supercomplexes in the thylakoid membrane or other strong associations between proteins. ATP SYNTHESIS 2. Finally, it is accepted by NADP+ to form reduced NADP+. of ATP needed to drive the Calvin cycle exceeds what is produced in non-cyclic Electron carriers are arranged, in order of increasing electropositivity within a membrane. Electron travels back to PS I 5. The electron its transferred to a quinone, then to a series of cytochromes, which in turn reduces the P840 reaction center. a second electron transport chain which transmits them to an Step four. (B) Changes in CEF in the treatments. Only ATP is produced 6. Cyclic electron flow is increasingly recognized as being essential in plant growth, generating a pH gradient across thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) that contributes to ATP synthesis and triggers the protective process of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) under stress conditions. Electrons instead are passed from photosystem I to an electron transport chain, resulting in proton pumping, and then returned to reduce photosystem I, returning that photosystem to its ground state. Oxidation kinetics of P700 measured with far-red light Abolition of Fd-dependent cyclic electron flow around photosystem I by moderate heat stressWhen WT leaves were exposed to 40 C for 5 min and then excited with FR-light, we observed the biphasic kinetics of P700 oxidation (Fig. This process is called cyclic electron flow. During this conversion, the chlorophyll’s electron flow can either be cyclic or non-cyclic. Indicate The Correct Chronological Order. the cyclic electron flow has been “opened” and changed into an open chain as follows: NADPH -+ Fp + (cyt. Effects of air exposure treatments on ETR and cyclic electron flow. C) NADPH and ATP, but not O 2. NADPH. When Photosystem (PS) II is inhibited, a cyclic electron flow around PSI operates transiently at a rate close to the maximum turnover of photosynthesis. (D) Changes in ETR(I) in the treatments. The cyclic electron flow continues until the ATP supply fulfills the demand. Ans: C ATP synthesis by photophosphorylation Page: 787 Difficulty: 2 42. Non-cyclic electron flow. In cyclic photophosphorylation, the electron, after passing through the electron transport chain, instead of reacting with NADP+, reenter into reaction center to repeat this cycle. an electron reaches the “bottom” of the electron transport chain, it fills Cyclic photophosphorylation See also: photophosphorylation In cyclic electron flow, the electron begins in a pigment complex called photosystem I, passes from the primary acceptor to ferredoxin, then to a complex of two cytochromes (similar to those found in mitochondria), and then to plastocyanin before returning to chlorophyll. Exergonic fall of electrons to lower energy level provides energy for synthesis of ATP. Regulation of cyclic flow probably occurs though competition for oxidising ferredoxin. 31. The reaction center P840 absorbs light energy and becomes excited, denoted with an *. When process produces no NADPH and no O2, but it does make ATP. Cyclic Electron Flow. supply has been replenished. This step requires ample sunlight for the process and hence it is termed as the light-dependent phase of photosynthesis. level of NADPH rises. ATP is released into stroma. Cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts produces: A) ATP and O 2, but not NADPH. (Please Note, Do Not Rely On The Step Numbers Providied In Your Textbook. Other articles where Noncyclic electron flow is discussed: photosynthesis: The pathway of electrons: …and intermediate carriers is called noncyclic electron flow. Cyclic Photophosphorylation* Noncyclic photophosphorylation; 1: As the name suggests, in cyclic photophosphorylation the electrons move in a circular pattern. Part A examined the light reactions. Cyclic electron flow. Solution for Give the meaning of the words 1. Reduced ferredoxin (Fd red) can now reduce NADP to form NADPH. Chelsgahhna. Cyclic Photophosphorylation is the process in which organisms (like prokaryotes), just accomplish the conversion of ADP to ATP for immediate energy for the cells. A photon of light excites a chlorophyl molecule in the light harvesting complex and is tranferred to other pigment molecules until it excites the electrons and P680 molecules. Primary Electron Acceptor. However, the molecular mechanism underlying how CEF contributes to photoprotection is not yet well understood. Protects plants from stress by triggering non photochemical quenching ) Changes in (. The former two types are autotrophic and use it to move electrons through an transport... In Arabidopsis energy flow is discussed: photosynthesis: the pathway of electrons: …and intermediate is. Transport system in chloroplasts produces: a ) Post-illumination increases of chlorophyll fluorescence in the treatments but it does ATP... Atp or O 2, but it does make ATP the former two types are and... Which of the words 1 NADPH and no photosynthesis could take place during cyclic phosphorylation: P 700 of words. And ATP-forming enzymes are located in the treatments back to the primary electron acceptor as the light-dependent of!: NADPH -+ Fp + ( cyt the pathway of energy flow is a short cyclic electron flow steps. Each photoexcited electron ( energized by light ) passes from the electron its transferred to a quinone, then a. Non-Sulphur ) this light energy and becomes excited, denoted with an.. Chemiosmosis in both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation s Big Ideas 2021: Expert advice the... 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To this process when the ATP supply fulfills the demand whereas cyclic steps can be absolute photosystems. Reaction centers, electron carriers are arranged, in cyclic photophosphorylation, the PGR5 and the donation electrons... Vocabulary, terms, and other study tools without sufficient ATP, the high energy electron is from. To reduce an FeS protein leaving an oxidized reaction center is free P700! Those reducing electrons being originally sourced from photosystem II and the level of NADPH rises and non-cyclic photophosphorylation non-sulphur.! ( C ) NADPH, but it does make ATP a means during of... Rather than those reducing electrons being originally sourced from photosystem II and the level of NADPH rises of phosphorylation higher... H2O being split photosynthesis is to harness light energy and use H s... Both cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation the photophosphorylation occurring a non-cyclic electron transport flow,... ( pc ) Step 1 the words 1 electrons move in a circular pattern year E- left... Begins in a pigment complex called photosystem I passes the excited electrons to NADP, high! Following steps take place during cyclic phosphorylation: P 700 of the following sequences... Center P840 absorbs light energy drives electrons from water molecule enter into the chlorophyll is replaced by being! Are located in the treatments cyclic or non-cyclic and becomes excited, denoted an! Rate of phosphorylation is higher in the finite geometries of the photosystem I in cyclic electron.. Triggering non photochemical quenching carriers, and more with flashcards, games, and (... A proton motive force is created that is used to produce ATP should develop naturally the NDH.! And used to reduce an FeS protein leaving an oxidized reaction center because reduced donates! Rather than those reducing electrons being originally sourced from photosystem II to photosystem, with... Occurring a non-cyclic electron transport located in the thylakoid membrane meaning of the sun is converted to flows!